Dead man's switch with AWS CloudWatch: Freshness-Alerting for Backups and Co

A recent challenge for one of the teams I am currently involved was to find a way in AWS CloudWatch:

  1. To alert if the metric breaches a specified threshold.
  2. To alert if a particular metric has not been sent to CloudWatch within a specified interval.

While the first one is pretty much standard CloudWatch functionality, the latter is a bit more tricky. In the Nagios/Icinga world it’s called “freshness”. You could also call it special case of a “Dead man’s switch“ for periodic tasks / cronjobs.

So for example in our case we wanted to have monitored and alerted whether a backup job runs once per day.

So here is what we did (CloudFormation snippet below):

  • Set the check period to the interval during which the metric is supposed to be sent. E.g. 86400 if the metric should is supposed to be sent every day. This instructs CloudWatch to check once per day.
  • Set evaluation periods to 1: We want to get alerted immediately when there is no data written or the threshold has been breached.
  • And now the important one: We have to treat missing data as breaching, so that,if there has been no entry within the evaluation period then the alarm gets triggered.

Example in CloudFormation syntax:

Type: AWS::CloudWatch::Alarm
Period: 86400
EvaluationPeriods: 1
TreatMissingData: breaching